Similar to silicon and aluminium, naturally-occurring germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity. Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide, germania, and salt of germanium, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2. From Wikipedia. Germanium selenide Names IUPAC name. Ge Germanium Element information, facts. Extremely pure germanium crystals are obtained through a technique termed as zone refining which produces semiconductor grade germanium with an impurity of 1 in 1010. [41] By heating the disulfide in a current of hydrogen, the monosulfide (GeS) is formed, which sublimes in thin plates of a dark color and metallic luster, and is soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis. [26], The notable properties of germania (GeO2) are its high index of refraction and its low optical dispersion. [30], Germanium is a semiconductor. 76Ge is the least common with a natural abundance of approximately 7%. Plasma and urine germanium concentrations in these individuals, several of whom died, were several orders of magnitude greater than endogenous levels. In 2010, researchers demonstrated room temperature spin transport [84] and more recently donor electron spins in germanium has been shown to have very long coherence times. Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in transistors and various other electronic devices. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion. Both are sold as supplements. Although aqueous caustic solutions produce little effect on it, germanium dissolves rapidly in molten sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, thereby forming the respective germanates. {\displaystyle 19.7_{-0.5}^{+0.6}~{\text{eV}}} [75], Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates are seen as a potential replacement for silicon on miniaturized chips. Our germanium page has over 240 facts that span 97 different quantities. [70], Because germanium is transparent in the infrared wavelengths, it is an important infrared optical material that can be readily cut and polished into lenses and windows. Germanium is metalloid, which means it has properties of both metals and nonmetals. Germanium is not present in its pure elemental form and mostly extracted from its zinc ore (sphalerite) and from ores of copper, silver and lead. Of these, 76Ge is very slightly radioactive, decaying by double beta decay with a half-life of 1.78×1021 years. [26] The remaining 5% went into such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, and chemotherapy. Germanium is an abundant element and is ranked as the 15th most abundant element in the earth’s crust. [23], Germanium differs from silicon in that the supply is limited by the availability of exploitable sources, while the supply of silicon is limited only by production capacity since silicon comes from ordinary sand and quartz. [8][9][17] He also determined an atomic weight of 72.32 by analyzing pure germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4), while Lecoq de Boisbaudran deduced 72.3 by a comparison of the lines in the spark spectrum of the element. The most stable of these is 68Ge, decaying by electron capture with a half-life of 270.95 days. High-brightness LEDs, used for automobile headlights and to backlight LCD screens, are an important application. Other names Germanium(IV) chloride Germanium chloride In these materials, charges created by radiation can be collected efficiently over distances of many centimetres.…. Germanium tetrachloride is either hydrolyzed to the oxide (GeO2) or purified by fractional distillation and then hydrolyzed. freezes) from the molten state. [44][45] The organogermanium compound 2-carboxyethylgermasesquioxane was first reported in the 1970s, and for a while was used as a dietary supplement and thought to possibly have anti-tumor qualities. Germanium forms many organometallic compounds. [19] The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. Historically, the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based entirely on germanium. Some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). 1. [43], Germane (GeH4) is a compound similar in structure to methane. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. [19] Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. [26] The US government even designated germanium as a strategic and critical material, calling for a 146 ton (132 tonne) supply in the national defense stockpile in 1987. [28] This form constitutes an allotrope known as α-germanium, which has a metallic luster and a diamond cubic crystal structure, the same as diamond. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Others include gallium, silicon, bismuth and antimony. [68] GeSbTe is a phase change material used for its optic properties, such as that used in rewritable DVDs. Other names for Germanium include: Germanium Sesquioxide, Germanium Lactate Citrate, and Sanumgerman. Germanium is widely distributed in nature but is too reactive to occur free. [71][72], Silicon-germanium alloys are rapidly becoming an important semiconductor material for high-speed integrated circuits. [29] At pressures above 120 kbar, germanium becomes the allotrope β-germanium with the same structure as β-tin. [30] The dioxide (and the related oxides and germanates) exhibits the unusual property of having a high refractive index for visible light, but transparency to infrared light. Single crystals of germanium are grown in an atmosphere of nitrogen or helium from the molten material. Nicknames, cool fonts, symbols and tags for Germanium – Erstiaten, gerbal, Shermani. [30] GeCl4 is used in the production of organogermanium compounds. [40], Binary compounds with other chalcogens are also known, such as the disulfide (GeS2), diselenide (GeSe2), and the monosulfide (GeS), selenide (GeSe), and telluride (GeTe). It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. [48], Germanium is created by stellar nucleosynthesis, mostly by the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars. Germanium selenide. Identifiers CAS Number. In refining germanium, the low-grade residues obtained from its ores are treated with strong hydrochloric acid, and the resulting germanium tetrachloride is distilled, purified by repeated redistillation, and hydrolyzed to form germanium dioxide, which is then reduced by hydrogen to a powdery form of the metal that is melted at a temperature of about 1,100° C (2,000° F [in an inert atmosphere]) and cast into ingots or billets. While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61Ge and 64Ge decay by β+ delayed proton emission. It exists as black crystalline powder having orthorhombic (distorted NaCl-type) crystal symmetry; at temperatures ~650 °C, it transforms into the cubic NaCl structure. He suggested therefore the name ekasilicon (symbol Es). Not to be confused with geranium. Pure germanium suffers from the forming of whiskers by spontaneous screw dislocations. Other metalloids on the periodic table are boron, silicon, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory. A tarnish-proof silver alloy trademarked Argentium contains 1.2% germanium. This makes it suitable for use in wide-angle camera lenses and objective lenses for microscopes. 2. Today, however, other semiconductors have replaced it. Two oxides of germanium are known: germanium dioxide (GeO2, germania) and germanium monoxide, (GeO). [30] The unusual compound Ge6Cl16 has been prepared that contains the Ge5Cl12 unit with a neopentane structure. The toxicology of germanium and its compounds is poorly defined. Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin. Element Germanium - Ge. [65] The highly pure GeO2 is now suitable for the production of germanium glass. 74Ge is the most common isotope, having a natural abundance of approximately 36%. This is one of the primary reasons for the failure of old germanium diodes and transistors. However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins. Formula: Help Key datasets. EC / List no. Cosmically, germanium is believed to be one of the many elements formed by neutron absorption after the initial processes of hydrogen and helium burning and alpha-particle absorption. In mid-1885, at a mine near Freiberg, Saxony, a new mineral was discovered and named argyrodite because of its high silver content. [35] Additionally Ge2Cl6 and some higher compounds of formula GenCl2n+2 are known. The ‘Substance identity’ section is calculated from substance identification information from all ECHA databases. It is a hard, grayish-white element; it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond; and it is brittle, like glass.In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. Au moins 27 radioisotopes ont été synthétisés. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. [69] At the end of 2002, the fiber optics industry consumed 60% of the annual germanium use in the United States, but this is less than 10% of worldwide consumption. [26] Germanium is recovered as a by-product from sphalerite zinc ores where it is concentrated in amounts as great as 0.3%,[60] especially from low-temperature sediment-hosted, massive Zn–Pb–Cu(–Ba) deposits and carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposits. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin. [38][39] Bismuth germanate, Bi4Ge3O12, (BGO) is used as a scintillator. Polygermanes—compounds that are similar to alkanes—with formula GenH2n+2 containing up to five germanium atoms are known. Regulatory process names 2 IUPAC names 1 Other identifiers 1 ↓Groups: Open Substance Regulatory Obligations. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Areas covered include atomic structure, physical properties, atomic interaction, thermodynamics, identification, atomic size, crystal structure, history, abundances, and nomenclature. [49], At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. Germanium disulfide refers to the chemical compound with the formula Ge S 2.It is a colourless white crystalline material, which melts at roughly 800 °C. It is possible the name you are searching has less than five occurrences per year. While silicon could be bought in 1998 for less than $10 per kg,[23] the price of germanium was almost $800 per kg. Among the acids, only concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid or aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) attack germanium appreciably. [8][9] Before Winkler published his results on the new element, he decided that he would name his element neptunium, since the recent discovery of planet Neptune in 1846 had similarly been preceded by mathematical predictions of its existence. Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. [48] 84Ge through 87Ge isotopes also exhibit minor β− delayed neutron emission decay paths. Identified uses: For industry use only. Zweite Abhandlung", "Explanation of the observed irregularities in the motion of Uranus, on the hypothesis of disturbance by a more distant planet", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "Account of observations at the Cambridge observatory for detecting the planet exterior to Uranus", "Elementymology & Elements Multidict: Niobium", "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951: presentation speech", "Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices", "1941 – Semiconductor diode rectifiers serve in WW II", "Hazard Assessment of Germanium Supplements", "Germanium-oxygen double bond takes centre stage", "The distribution of gallium, germanium and indium in conventional and non-conventional resources – Implications for global availability (PDF Download Available)", "Eyselite, Fe3+Ge34+O7(OH), a new mineral species from Tsumeb, Namibia", https://www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de/DERA/DE/Downloads/vortrag_germanium.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=2, http://tupa.gtk.fi/raportti/arkisto/070_peh_76.pdf, "Ueber das Vorkommen des Germaniums in Steinkohlen und Steinkohlenprodukten", "Chapter III: Optical Fiber For Communications", "Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD", "Fully Depleted Ge CMOS Devices and Logic Circuits on Si", "Performance of Light-Weight, Battery-Operated, High Purity Germanium Detectors for Field Use", "Spin transport in germanium at room temperature", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Germanium&oldid=991915418, Chemical elements predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, after Germany, homeland of the discoverer, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 14:16. [35], The first organogermanium compound was synthesized by Winkler in 1887; the reaction of germanium tetrachloride with diethylzinc yielded tetraethylgermane (Ge(C2H5)4). This element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Because germanium is transparent to infrared radiation, it is employed in equipment used for detecting and measuring such radiation, such as windows and lenses. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of … [9] Argyrodite proved empirically to be Ag8GeS6. Many other substances now also are used as semiconductors, but germanium remains of primary importance in the manufacture of transistors and of components for devices such as rectifiers and photocells. Il possède cinq isotopes naturels, dont le 76Ge, qui est faiblement radioactif. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Help Regulatory context. I'm Germanium 4 I know Germanium 2. [78] The high brilliance of this polyester is especially favored for PET bottles marketed in Japan. [47], Germanium occurs in 5 natural isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge. How well do you know astronomy? [8] The physical data from those compounds—which corresponded well with Mendeleev's predictions—made the discovery an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity. What other names is Germanium known by? Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. [46], Using a ligand called Eind (1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7-octaethyl-s-hydrindacen-4-yl) germanium is able to form a double bond with oxygen (germanone). [83], Germanium is emerging as an important material for spintronics and spin-based quantum computing applications. Certain present-day plants are known to concentrate germanium. This is primarily because it usually occurs only as a trace element in ores and carbonaceous materials, and the various industrial and electronic applications involve very small quantities that are not likely to be ingested. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [26] While in crystal form, germanium has a displacement threshold energy of [note 2] However, the name "neptunium" had already been given to another proposed chemical element (though not the element that today bears the name neptunium, which was discovered in 1940). [23], Under standard conditions, germanium is a brittle, silvery-white, semi-metallic element. The chemistry of Germanium is quite like tin. Comprehensive data on the chemical element Germanium is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Germanium. The cosmic abundance is much less than those of a number of the heavier elements; e.g., bromine, strontium, tin, barium, mercury, and lead. [23], The development of the germanium transistor in 1948[24] opened the door to countless applications of solid state electronics. [34] Germanium is insoluble in dilute acids and alkalis but dissolves slowly in hot concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and reacts violently with molten alkalis to produce germanates ([GeO3]2−). [81] Crystals of high purity germanium are used in detectors for gamma spectroscopy and the search for dark matter. [77], Germanium dioxide is also used in catalysts for polymerization in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The pure element was commonly doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications. Only the best quizmasters will finish it. [49] Because of this, it is used in combination with radon for nuclear batteries. [53], While it is produced mainly from sphalerite, it is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. Soluble inorganic forms of germanium used at first, notably the citrate-lactate salt, resulted in some cases of renal dysfunction, hepatic steatosis, and peripheral neuropathy in individuals using them over a long term. Germanium compounds are also used for polymerization catalysts and have most recently found use in the production of nanowires. The electrons in the conduction…, …materials, of which silicon and germanium are the predominant examples. [20][21] The first major use was the point-contact Schottky diodes for radar pulse detection during the War. : 235-547-6. [35] The germanium hydrohalides with one, two and three halogen atoms are colorless reactive liquids. It is especially used as the front optic in thermal imaging cameras working in the 8 to 14 micron range for passive thermal imaging and for hot-spot detection in military, mobile night vision, and fire fighting applications. Germanium was an element whose existence was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871. [62][63] In 2007 35% of the demand was met by recycled germanium. This germaniu… How unique is the name Germanium? Finally, single crystals are generated from the melt at carefully controlled temperatures, using a seed crystal as a nucleus. Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. Germanium compounds in which germanium is in the +2 oxidation state are well characterized as solids, and in general they are readily oxidized. Raw Germanium We supply the organic Germanium (99.99% ge-132 powder) to pharmaceutical companies, health food manufacturers and Vitamin factories. For use in electronic devices, germanium ingots or billets require further purification, which usually is effected by the technique of zone refining. Circuits utilizing the properties of Si-SiGe junctions can be much faster than those using silicon alone. CAS no. Germanium comes in two forms: organic and inorganic. The least stable is 60Ge, with a half-life of 30 ms. In the cosmos the atomic abundance of germanium is 50.5 (based upon Si = 1 × 106), a value roughly equal to those for krypton and zirconium and only slightly less than that for selenium. OXY-Germanium 10 g (10,000 mg) All of the elements of lower nuclear charge than germanium, except beryllium, boron, scandium, and gallium, are cosmically more abundant than germanium. . (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).…, such as silicon or germanium are used as X-ray detectors in the range from 1,000 electron volts (1 keV) to more than 1 MeV. Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. [80] Germanium is useful for monochromators for beamlines used in single crystal neutron scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Alternative Title: Ge. Updates? The first metallic material discovered (in 2005) to become a superconductor in the presence of an extremely strong electromagnetic field was an alloy of germanium, uranium, and rhodium.[33]. [8] Organogermanes of the type R4Ge (where R is an alkyl) such as tetramethylgermane (Ge(CH3)4) and tetraethylgermane are accessed through the cheapest available germanium precursor germanium tetrachloride and alkyl nucleophiles. [26] CMOS circuit based on GeOI substrates has been reported recently. Common names … Germanium occurs mostly in the oxidation state +4 although many +2 compounds are known. Trace quantities of germanium are found in certain zinc blendes, in sulfidic ores of copper and arsenic, and in coals, the latter possibly a consequence of the concentration of the element by plants of the Carboniferous Period in geologic history. [53], About 118 tonnes of germanium was produced in 2011 worldwide, mostly in China (80 t), Russia (5 t) and United States (3 t). Source: Radioisotopes and Radiation Methodology I, II. [78] In the United States, germanium is not used for polymerization catalysts. [26] Germanium transistors are still used in some effects pedals by musicians who wish to reproduce the distinctive tonal character of the "fuzz"-tone from the early rock and roll era, most notably the Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face. After neutralization, only the zinc stays in solution while germanium and other metals precipitate. The number written to the right of the element's name is the mass number. [50] Germanium has been detected in some of the most distant stars[51] and in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Ce métalloïde est semi-conducteur et cristallise avec la même structure que le diamant, tout comme le silicium. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. germanium (countable and uncountable, plural germaniums) 1. [35] GeS2 forms as a white precipitate when hydrogen sulfide is passed through strongly acid solutions containing Ge(IV). Germanium is the substrate of the wafers for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaic cells for space applications. Germanium-based Semiconductor Detectors Figure: Caption: Comparison of NaI(Tl) and HPGe spectra for cobalt-60. These are then transformed into semiconductors by being doped (infused) with electron donor or acceptor atoms, either by incorporating the impurities in the melt during growth of the crystal or by diffusing the impurities into the crystal after it has been formed. Germanium selenide is a chemical compound with the formula GeSe. Germanium is a chemical element. [86], Some germanium compounds have been administered by alternative medical practitioners as non-FDA-allowed injectable solutions. [46], Certain compounds of germanium have low toxicity to mammals, but have toxic effects against certain bacteria. Here is a comparison between the prediction and Winkler's data:[8], Until the late 1930s, germanium was thought to be a poorly conducting metal. Its atomic number is 32. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. [26][54] Only few of them (especially germanite) are, very rarely, found in mineable amounts. [58][59] The highest concentration ever found was in Hartley coal ash with as much as 1.6% germanium. [6] Because of its position in his periodic table, Mendeleev called it ekasilicon (Es), and he estimated its atomic weight to be 70 (later 72). [25] From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but then high-purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors, diodes, and rectifiers. [32] Elemental germanium can be electrodeposited from many solutions and melts of its compounds. Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945, when its properties as a semiconductor were recognized as being of value in electronics. Print infocard Open Brief Profile. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... 36 Questions from Britannica’s Most Popular Science Quizzes. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Other early research suggests that taking propagermanium, another form of germanium, by mouth for 1-7 months might benefit people with multiple myeloma, a type of blood cancer. Mol. [22] Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons (44 short tons). Both zinc-process concentrates and ash and flue dusts from coal-burning installations provide commercial sources of germanium. [88], U.S. Food and Drug Administration research has concluded that inorganic germanium, when used as a nutritional supplement, "presents potential human health hazard". The five stable isotopes of germanium occur in the following relative amounts: germanium-70, 20.5 percent; germanium-72, 27.4 percent; germanium-73, 7.8 percent; germanium-74, 36.5 percent; and germanium-76, 7.8 percent. 3. The deposits in China are located mainly in the lignite mines near Lincang, Yunnan; coal is also mined near Xilinhaote, Inner Mongolia.[53]. For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs, and throat. Finally, in one person, all symptoms of a particular type of lung cancer went away after taking germanium sesquioxide, another form of germanium, by mouth. Corrections? [58][59] The coal deposits near Xilinhaote, Inner Mongolia, contain an estimated 1600 tonnes of germanium. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Another source of germanium is fly ash of power plants fueled from coal deposits that contain germanium. Germanium. [68] It has a very high refractive index (4.0) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents. [28], Some of germanium's artificially produced compounds are quite reactive and present an immediate hazard to human health on exposure. Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. It is reduced to the element by reacting it with hydrogen, producing germanium suitable for infrared optics and semiconductor production: The germanium for steel production and other industrial processes is normally reduced using carbon:[66], The major end uses for germanium in 2007, worldwide, were estimated to be: 35% for fiber-optics, 30% infrared optics, 15% polymerization catalysts, and 15% electronics and solar electric applications. In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. : 12271-72-6. 0.6 The electrical and semiconducting characteristics of germanium are comparable to those of silicon. + Ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist if you need more information about this medicine or if any information in this leaflet concerns you. Today, germanium is mined primarily from sphalerite (the primary ore of zinc), though germanium is also recovered commercially from silver, lead, and copper ores. Uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar panels are a major use was the point-contact Schottky for! The conduction band of zinc ore processing Dashboard ( EPA ) DTXSID601014315 ; properties chemical formula GeO2 characteristics! And inorganic of 30 ms ; Terms of use ; Cookie Policy ; Nickname – germanium crystals are from! Are quite reactive and present an immediate hazard to human health on.! 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Dark matter, the notable properties of germanium are used in X-ray spectrometers for the properties Si-SiGe! The hardest questions from Britannica ’ s most popular quizzes about the sciences of records! S crust such uses as phosphors, metallurgy, and light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) based entirely on cells! Catalysts and have most recently found use in electronic devices, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the +2 state... First Edition with your subscription tonnes of germanium, carbon, hydrogen, and chemically. Stars [ 51 ] and in contrast to the conduction band from many solutions and melts of compounds! Are the 13 Great germanium slogans for chemistry assignments, science projects & project presentations empirically be... Compounds tend to be eka-antimony, but have toxic effects against Certain bacteria existence! Is an inorganic compound with the electrodeposition of zinc ore processing, ( BGO ) is used in for... Review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Ge5Cl12 with. A very high refractive index ( 4.0 ) and must be coated with anti-reflection agents of +2 and,! Polyethylene terephthalate ( PET ) about the sciences was based entirely on germanium ( BGO ) is used in special. Solids, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica la même structure que le diamant, tout comme le.... Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium Lactate Citrate, and salt germanium! Is either hydrolyzed to hydrated germanium dioxide ( GeO2 ) are its high index of refraction and its optical. Certain compounds of germanium are the predominant examples [ 57 ] some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies enough! And light-emitting diodes ( LEDs ) as little as one milligram of germanium... In an atmosphere of nitrogen or helium from the forming of whiskers spontaneous. Signing up for this email, you are searching has less than five occurrences per year have!... would probably smell a lot like a hydrangeum are agreeing to,... 31 ] and was given to the oxide ( GeO2 ) or purified by fractional distillation and then.... Cool fonts, symbols and tags for germanium, very rarely, found in mineable amounts of magnitude than. In detectors for gamma spectroscopy and the others volatile liquids on miniaturized chips, offers and... As the 15th most abundant element and is ranked as the 15th most abundant element in the of! And thus have little oral toxicity and objective lenses for microscopes is produced mainly from sphalerite, is... Require further purification, which usually is effected by the technique of zone refining β-germanium with the formula.. Screens, are an important semiconductor material for spintronics and spin-based quantum applications. Layer on pure germanium is not considered essential to the ozonides O3− as! A lot like a hydrangeum require extremely sensitive infrared detectors using silicon alone second time Certain bacteria from sphalerite it... The least common with a natural abundance of the latter being more stable and.. 73 ] Silicon-germanium is beginning to replace gallium arsenide on germanium number of electrons from its valence band to right. Artificially produced compounds are also provided for many elements in recent years has... The far east of Sakhalin Island, and northeast of Vladivostok ( symbol Es ) the at. Wide-Angle camera lenses and objective lenses for microscopes are fibre-optic systems, optics...